Learn more about the unique interaction between mammalian milk and the newborn gut microbiome, the potential causes of gut dysbiosis, and our approach to restoring the newborn gut to its natural state.


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  • Hossain, Md Shabab, et al. "Association of faecal pH with childhood stunting: Results from a cross-sectional study." BMJ Paediatrics Open 3.1 (2019): e000549.

  • Henrick, Bethany M., et al. "Colonization by B. infantis EVC001 modulates enteric inflammation in exclusively breastfed infants." Pediatric research (2019): 1-11.

  • Karav, Sercan, et al. "N-glycans from human milk glycoproteins are selectively released by an infant gut symbiont in vivo." Journal of Functional Foods 61 (2019): 103485.

  • Casaburi, Giorgio, et al. "Early-life gut microbiome modulation reduces the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria." Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 8.1 (2019): 1-18.

  • Huda, M. Nazmul, et al. "Bifidobacterium Abundance in Early Infancy and Vaccine Response at 2 Years of Age." Pediatrics 143.2 (2019): e20181489.

  • Rhoads, J. Marc, et al. "Infant colic represents gut inflammation and dysbiosis." The Journal of pediatrics 203 (2018): 55-61.

  • Insel, Richard, and Mikael Knip. "Prospects for primary prevention of type 1 diabetes by restoring a disappearing microbe." Pediatric diabetes 19.8 (2018): 1400-1406.

  • Taft, Diana H., et al. "Bifidobacterial Dominance of the Gut in Early Life and Acquisition of Antimicrobial Resistance." mSphere 3.5 (2018): e00441-18.

  • Karav, S., Casaburi, G. and Frese, S. A. (2018), Reduced colonic mucin degradation in breastfed infants colonized by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001. FEBS Open Bio.

  • Casaburi G, and Frese SA. Colonization of breastfed infants by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001 reduces virulence gene abundance. Human Microbiome Journal (2018).

  • Henrick BM, Hutton AA, Palumbo MC, Casaburi G, Mitchell RD, Underwood MA, Smilowitz JT, Frese SA. (2018). Elevated fecal pH indicates a profound change in the breastfed infant gut microbiome due to reduction of Bifidobacterium over the past century. mSphere 3:e00041-18.

  • Frese SA, Hutton AA, Contreras LN, Shaw CA, Palumbo MC, Casaburi G, Xu G, Davis JCC, Lebrilla CB, Henrick BM, Freeman SL, Barile D, German JB, Mills DA, Smilowitz JT, Underwood MA. (2017). Persistence of supplemented Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001 in breastfed infants. mSphere 2:e00501-17.

  • Davis, Jasmine CC, et al. "Growth and morbidity of Gambian infants are influenced by maternal milk oligosaccharides and infant gut microbiota." Scientific reports 7 (2017): 40466.

  • Smilowitz, Jennifer T., et al. "Safety and tolerability of Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis EVC001 supplementation in healthy term breastfed infants: a phase I clinical trial." BMC pediatrics 17.1 (2017): 133.

  • Bokulich, Nicholas A., et al. "Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life.” Science translational medicine 8.343 (2016): 343ra82-343ra82.

  • Yassour, Moran, et al. "Natural history of the infant gut microbiome and impact of antibiotic treatment on bacterial strain diversity and stability." Science translational medicine 8.343 (2016): 343ra81-343ra81.

  • Tannock, Gerald W., et al. "Why don't all infants have Bifidobacteria in their stool?." Frontiers in microbiology 7 (2016): 834.

  • Vatanen, Tommi, et al. "Variation in microbiome LPS immunogenicity contributes to autoimmunity in humans." Cell 165.4 (2016): 842-853.

  • Bäckhed, Fredrik, et al. "Dynamics and stabilization of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life." Cell host & microbe 17.5 (2015): 690-703.

  • Orivuori, L., et al. "High level of fecal calprotectin at age 2 months as a marker of intestinal inflammation predicts atopic dermatitis and asthma by age 6." Clinical & experimental allergy 45.5 (2015): 928-939.

  • Frese, S. and D. A. Mills. 2015. Should infants cry over spilled milk? Fecal glycomics as an indicator of a healthy infant gut microbiome. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 60 (6):695-.

  • Lewis, Z. T., S. M. Totten, J. T. Smilowitz, M. Popovic, E. Parker, D. G. Lemay, M. L. Van Tassell, M. J. Miller, Y. S. Jin, J. B. German, C. B. Lebrilla and D. A. Mills. 2015. Maternal fucosyltransferase 2 status impacts gut bifidobacterial communities of breastfed infants. Microbiome 3:13.

  • Underwood, M. A., J. B. German, C. B. Lebrilla, D. A. Mills. 2015. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis: champion colonizer of the infant gut. Pediatric Research 77:229-235.

  • Underwood, M., J. Arriola, C. Gerber, A. Kaveti, K. Kalanetra, A. Kananurak, C. Bevins, D. A. Mills, and B. Dvorak. 2014. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis: alterations in inflammation, innate immune response, and the microbiota. Pediatric Research 76: 326–333.

  • Smilowitz, J. T., C. B. Lebrilla, D. A. Mills, J. B. German and S. L. Freeman. 2014. Breast milk oligosaccharides: Structure function relationships in the neonate. Annual Review of Nutrition 34:143-69.

  • Sela, D. A. and D. A. Mills. (2014). The marriage of nutrigenomics with the microbiome: the case of infant-associated bifidobacteria and milk. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99:697S-703S.

  • Barile D., Rastall R. (2013). Human milk and related oligosaccharides as prebiotics. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 24:214-219.

  • Fukuda, Shinji, et al. "Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate." Nature 469.7331 (2011): 543.

  • Sela, D. A., Y. Li, L. Lerno, S. Wu, A. M. Marcobal, J. B. German, Xi Chen, C. B. Lebrilla and D. A. Mills. (2011). An infant-associated bacterial commensal utilizes breast milk sialyoligosaccharides. Journal of Biological Chemistry 286:11909-11918.

  • Zivkovic, A., J. B. German, C. B. Lebrilla and D. A. Mills. (2011). The human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant microbiota. Proceedings in the National Academy of Sciences 108:4653-4658.

  • Berg, Ronald W., Michael C. Milligan, and Frank C. Sarbaugh. "Association of skin wetness and pH with diaper dermatitis." Pediatric dermatology 11.1 (1994): 18-20.

  • Pratt, Arthur G., and W. T. Read Jr. "Influence of type of feeding on pH of stool, pH of skin, and incidence of perianal dermatitis in the newborn infant." Journal of Pediatrics 46 (1955): 539-543.