Learn more about the unique interaction between mammalian milk and the newborn gut microbiome, the potential causes of gut dysbiosis, and our approach to restoring the newborn gut to its natural state.


Select Publications

  • Taft, Diana H., et al. "Bifidobacterial Dominance of the Gut in Early Life and Acquisition of Antimicrobial Resistance." mSphere 3.5 (2018): e00441-18.

  • Karav, S. , Casaburi, G. and Frese, S. A. (2018), Reduced colonic mucin degradation in breastfed infants colonized by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001. FEBS Open Bio

  • Casaburi G, and Frese SA. Colonization of breastfed infants by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001 reduces virulence gene abundance. Human Microbiome Journal (2018).

  • Henrick BM, Hutton AA, Palumbo MC, Casaburi G, Mitchell RD, Underwood MA, Smilowitz JT, Frese SA. (2018). Elevated fecal pH indicates a profound change in the breastfed infant gut microbiome due to reduction of Bifidobacterium over the past century. mSphere 3:e00041-18.

  • Frese SA, Hutton AA, Contreras LN, Shaw CA, Palumbo MC, Casaburi G, Xu G, Davis JCC, Lebrilla CB, Henrick BM, Freeman SL, Barile D, German JB, Mills DA, Smilowitz JT, Underwood MA. (2017). Persistence of supplemented Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001 in breastfed infants. mSphere 2:e00501-17.

  • Jennifer T. Smilowitz, Jackelyn Moya, Melissa A. Breck, Chelsea Cook, Annette Fineberg, Kathleen Angkustsiri and Mark A. Underwood. 2017. Safety and tolerability of Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis EVC001 supplementation in healthy term breastfed infants: a phase I clinical trial. BMC pediatrics

  • Frese, S. and D. A. Mills. 2015. Should infants cry over spilled milk? Fecal glycomics as an indicator of a healthy infant gut microbiome. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 60 (6):695-.

  • Subramanian, S., L. Blanton, S. A. Frese, M. Charbonneau, D. A. Mills, and J. I. Gordon. 2015. Cultivating healthy growth and nutrition through the gut microbiota. Cell 161:36-48.

  • Lewis, Z. T., S. M. Totten, J. T. Smilowitz, M. Popovic, E. Parker, D. G. Lemay, M. L. Van Tassell, M. J. Miller, Y. S. Jin, J. B. German, C. B. Lebrilla and D. A. Mills. 2015. Maternal fucosyltransferase 2 status impacts gut bifidobacterial communities of breastfed infants. Microbiome 3:13.

  • Pacheco, A. R., D. Barile, M. A. Underwood, D. A. Mills. 2015. Impact of the milk glycobiome on the neonate gut microbiota. Annual Reviews in Animal Sciences 3: 419-445.

  • Underwood, M. A., J. B. German, C. B. Lebrilla, D. A. Mills. 2015. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis: champion colonizer of the infant gut. Pediatric Research 77:229-235.

  • German, J. B., J. T. Smilowitz, C. B. Lebrilla, D. A. Mills, S.L. Freeman. 2015. Metabolomics and milk: The development of the microbiota in breast fed infants. In, S. Kochhar and F.-P. Martin, Eds, Metabonomics and Gut Microbiota in Nutrition and Disease, Springer, New York, NY pp 147-167.

  • De Leoza, M. L. A., K. M. Kalanetra, N. A. Bokulich, J. S. Strum, M. A. Underwood, J. B. German, D. A. Mills, and C. B. Lebrilla. 2015. Human milk glycomics and gut microbial genomics in infant feces shows correlation between human milk oligosaccharides and gut microbiota: A proof-of-concept study. Journal of Proteome Research 14:491–502.

  • Dallas, D. C., Smink, C. J., Robinson, R. C., Tian, T., Guerrero, A., Parker, E. A., Smilowitz, J. T., Hettinga, K. A., Underwood, M. A., Lebrilla, C. B., German, J. B. and D. Barile. 2014. Endogenous Human Milk Peptide Release Is Greater after Preterm Birth than Term Birth. The Journal of Nutrition 114.203646. 2014

  • Underwood, M., J. Arriola, C. Gerber, A. Kaveti, K. Kalanetra, A. Kananurak, C. Bevins, D. A. Mills, and B. Dvorak. 2014. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis: alterations in inflammation, innate immune response, and the microbiota. Pediatric Research 76: 326–333.

  • Huda, M N., Z. Lewis, K. Kalanetra, M. Rashid, S. Ahmad, R. Raqib, F. Qadri, M. A. Underwood, D. A. Mills and C. Stephensen. 2014. Stool microbiota and vaccine responses of infants. Pediatrics 134:2 e362-e372.

  • Smilowitz, J. T., C. B. Lebrilla, D. A. Mills, J. B. German and S. L. Freeman. 2014. Breast milk oligosaccahrides: Structure function relationships in the neonate. Annual Review of Nutrition 34:143-69.

  • Sela, D. A. and D. A. Mills. (2014). The marriage of nutrigenomics with the microbiome: the case of infant-associated bifidobacteria and milk. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99:697S-703S.

  • Barile D., Rastall R. (2013). Human milk and related oligosaccharides as prebiotics. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 24:214-219.

  • Zivkovic, A. M., Z. T. Lewis, J. B. German and D. A. Mills. (2013). Establishment of a milk-oriented microbiota (MOM) in early life: How babies meet their MOMs. Functional Food Reviews 5:3-12.

  • Sela, D. A., Y. Li, L. Lerno, S. Wu, A. M. Marcobal, J. B. German, Xi Chen, C. B. Lebrilla and D. A. Mills. (2011). An infant-associated bacterial commensal utilizes breast milk sialyoligosaccharides. Journal of Biological Chemistry 286:11909-11918.

  • Zivkovic, A., J. B. German, C. B. Lebrilla and D. A. Mills. (2011). The human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant microbiota. Proceedings in the National Academy of Sciences 108:4653-4658.

  • Marcobal, A., M. Barboza, J. Froehlich, D. E. Block, J. B. German, C. B. Lebrilla and D. A. Mills. (2010). Consumption of human milk oligosaccahrides by gut-related microbes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58:5334-40.

  • German, J.B, S. L. Freeman, C. B. Lebrilla, and D. A. Mills. Human milk oligosaccharides: Evolution, structures and bioselectivity as substrates for intestinal bacteria. (2008). In Bier, D.M., J.B. German, and B. Lonnerdal Eds. Personalized nutrition for the diverse needs of infants and children. Karger, New York.